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Gallipoli Portraits
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Gallipoli Legends
I Have Already Seen
I Have Lost My Right Arm...
Last Letter
Hasan with Helen
The Man and his Donkey


Ismail Enver was born in 1880, in Istanbul. His father was a government official. His reputation increased with the Revolution of the Young Turks in 1908. He was promoted very fast. He was a lieutenant colonel in 1913, in the end of same year, he became a colonel and 19 days after he was promoted to Pasha rank. Then he entered the cabinet as Minister of War and soon became Commander in Chief. Next, he married to Naciye Sultana daughter of the Sultan.

Enver's patriotism and addiction to his country were uncontroversial. However, he laboured under a delusion. His target was to expand in Iran, India, Central Asia, and Caucasus and this was nothing but an illusion. Cemal Pasha in his memories says: "To say the reality, during our first Canal Assault, non of us knew how to force the canal...."

However, the Canal campaign was Cemal and Enver's shared project. They have both signed this decision to secure Syria.

Before the Canal assault, Sarikamish Campaign (29 December 1914) was a disaster. Enver decided to recapture the lands that were lost with Berlin Treaty (1878). He assumed the command of the campaign against the Russians during the middle of the winter, but only 10.000 of the 90.000 soldiers survived. 80.000 soldiers had died because of starvation and cold.

Enver did not pay attention to the warnings of Izzet Pasha (commander of the Army), despite the cold and snow he ordered an assault. This was the death order of Third Army.

In Sarikamish, Enver left a letter to the government, saying; ".... My soldiers very bravely fought. Victory is certain. If I fail, I will die with my last soldier ... I believe I have completed my mission and I am dying. Long live my religion, country, and Sultan.

Following Germany sustained a defeat in the Great War and the Ottoman Empire had collapsed with Seurre Treaty, Enver left Turkey in October 1918. He tried to realise his dreams abroad. On 4 August 1922, he was shot in Central Asia and died at the age of 42.


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What Other Says
Ahmet Basaran
Ahmet Fehmi Turkan
Hakki Tuna
Osman Kacmaz
Serif Ali Arslan

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